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中国防痨杂志 ›› 2024, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 206-212.doi: 10.19982/j.issn.1000-6621.20230368

• 论著 • 上一篇    下一篇


董龙雨1, 王嘉2, 倪帅虎1, 陈钢1, 王倪2, 罗小峰1(), 屈燕2(), 赵雁林2()   

  1. 1兰州大学公共卫生学院, 兰州 730000
    2中国疾病预防控制中心结核病预防控制中心, 北京 102206
  • 收稿日期:2023-10-18 出版日期:2024-02-10 发布日期:2024-01-30
  • 通信作者: 罗小峰,屈燕,赵雁林;;
  • 基金资助:

An analysis on the core knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tuberculosis prevention and control among college students in four provinces of China

Dong Longyu1, Wang Jia2, Ni Shuaihu1, Chen Gang1, Wang Ni2, Luo Xiaofeng1(), Qu Yan2(), Zhao Yanlin2()   

  1. 1School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
  • Received:2023-10-18 Online:2024-02-10 Published:2024-01-30
  • Contact: Luo Xiaofeng,Qu Yan,Zhao Yanlin;;
  • Supported by:
    University Volunteers’ TB Prevention and Control Advocacy in Promoting Patient Finding Program(0554)

摘要: 目的: 了解我国在校大学生结核病防治核心知识、信念和行为基本情况,为制定科学有效的高校健康教育策略提供依据。方法: 2022年4—7月,采用分层整群抽样及自行设计的网络问卷对浙江、四川、湖北和甘肃4省80所高校中一、二年级在校大学生进行调查,共收集问卷18438份,获得有效问卷17491份,问卷有效率为94.86%。使用χ2检验分析知识知晓率差异。 结果: 大学生核心知识总知晓率为82.20% (115019/139928);单一知晓率中,“如果怀疑自己得了肺结核应到当地结核病定点医疗机构看病”最高 [97.14% (16991/17491)],“肺结核(肺痨)是慢性传染性疾病”最低 [53.68% (9390/17491)]。不同人口学特征的大学生中,总知晓率较高的组为女生 [83.80% (65333/77960), χ2=309.733, P<0.001]、医学专业 [84.79% (27701/32672), χ2=194.870, P<0.001]、本科高校 [83.25% (66017/79296), χ2=139.249, P<0.001]、患过结核病 [84.82% (760/896), χ2=4.239, P=0.040] 和接受过健康教育 [83.62% (97111/116128), χ2=948.032, P<0.001]。参与调查的大学生中,96.23% (16831/17491) 认为学校有必要开展结核病防控宣传教育,且92.37% (16156/17491) 愿意参加及94.66% (16557/17491) 会主动将学到的知识传授给他人;假设自己患病,10.99% (1923/17491) 反应为无所谓/情绪低落/绝望/无助;假设身边的人患病,11.49% (2009/17491) 选择与其疏远/拒绝来往。12.00% (2099/17491) 的大学生当前/既往吸烟,66.47% (11627/17491) 经常熬夜,55.33% (9677/17491) 睡眠不足,30.88% (5401/17491) 身边同学有随地吐痰现象,37.57% (6572/17491) 做不到咳嗽、打喷嚏时均能遮挡口鼻。 结论: 学校结核病防治核心知识在大学生中尚未完全普及。应针对男生、专科和非医学专业等大学生进一步开展健康教育,同时注重引导学生树立关爱结核病患者的信念和养成健康的生活方式。

关键词: 结核, 大学生, 健康知识,态度,实践

Abstract: Objective: To understand the core knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control among college students in China, and to provide evidence for scientific and effective health education strategies in colleges. Methods: From April to July 2022, stratified cluster sampling method and self-designed network questionnaire were used to investigate freshmen and sophomores from 80 colleges in Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hubei, and Gansu Provinces. A total of 18438 questionnaires were collected, of which 17491 were valid, and the efficiency was 94.86%. Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in total awareness rates. Results: The total awareness rate of core knowledge of TB among college students was 82.20% (115019/139928). In the single awareness rates, that of “If suspected of having TB, individuals need to contact a local TB medical institution for care” was highest (97.14% (16991/17491)) and that of “TB is a chronic infectious disease” was lowest (53.68% (9390/17491)). Higher total awareness rates were observed among female students (83.80% (65333/77960), χ2=309.733, P<0.001), medical students (84.79% (27701/32672), χ2=194.870, P<0.001), students who came from undergraduate colleges (83.25% (66017/79296), χ2=139.249, P<0.001), students who infected TB previously (84.82% (760/896), χ2=4.239, P=0.040), and students who ever received health education (83.62% (97111/116128), χ2=948.032, P<0.001). There were 96.23% (16831/17491) agreed that it was important for colleges to conduct TB health education, 92.37% (16156/17491) were willing to participate in these activities, and 94.66% (16557/17491) were willing to share the knowledge they learned with others among college students surveyed. Supposing they infected TB, 10.99% (1923/17491) responded with indifference/depression/despair/helplessness. If familiar people were suffering from TB, 11.49% (2009/17491) chose to alienate/refuse to communicate with them. There were 12.00% (2099/17491) college students were a current or ever smoker, 66.47% (11627/17491) used to stay up late, 55.33% (9677/17491) experienced insufficient sleep, 30.88% (5401/17491) observed classmates spitting and 37.57% (6572/17491) could not cover their mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Conclusion: The core knowledge of TB prevention and control in schools has not been fully widespread among college students. TB health education should be further carried out for male, junior college and non-medical students, etc. Meanwhile, it is imperative to guide students to establish a belief of caring for TB patients and develop a healthy lifestyle.

Key words: Tuberculosis, College students, Health knowledge, attitudes, practices