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中国防痨杂志 ›› 2012, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (8): 485-508.

• 论著 •    下一篇


全国第五次结核病流行病学抽样调查技术指导组 全国第五次结核病流行病学抽样调查办公室   

  1. 全国第五次结核病流行病学抽样调查技术指导组 全国第五次结核病流行病学抽样调查办公室
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-16 出版日期:2012-08-10 发布日期:2012-08-10
  • 通信作者: 王宇

The fifth national tuberculosis epidemiological survey in 2010

Technical Guidance Group of the Fifth National TB Epidemiological Survey;The Office of the Fifth National TB Epidemiological Survey   

  1. Technical Guidance Group of the Fifth National TB Epidemiological Survey;The Office of the Fifth National TB Epidemiological Survey
  • Received:2012-06-16 Online:2012-08-10 Published:2012-08-10
  • Contact: WANG Yu

摘要: 为了解中国结核病的流行现状及趋势,评价《全国结核病防治规划(2001—2010年)》的执行情况。采用多阶段分层整群等比例随机抽样方法对流行病学抽样调查(简称“流调”)点15岁及以上应检人口进行胸部X线摄片检查,对所有应查痰对象进行痰涂片和痰培养检查。对流调获得的所有菌株进行抗结核药品的药物敏感性检测。对流调发现的所有活动性肺结核患者进行社会经济和结核病知识知晓情况问卷调查。研究发现:(1)2010年15岁及以上人群活动性肺结核的患病率为459/10万,涂阳肺结核患病率为66/10万。(2)肺结核患病率均为男性高于女性,且随着年龄增加逐步增高,75~79岁组达到高峰。(3)东部地区活动性和涂阳肺结核患病率为291/10万、44/10万;中部地区活动性和涂阳肺结核患病率为463/10万和60/10万;西部地区活动性和涂阳肺结核患病率为695/10万和105/10万。乡村活动性和涂阳患病率为569/10万和78/10万,城镇活动性和涂阳患病率为307/10万和49/10万。(4)耐多药率为6.8%(19/280)。(5)公众结核病防治知识知晓率仅为57.0%(720 912/1 264 905)。(6)肺结核患者的家庭年人均纯收入为3292元,其中66.8%的患者家庭年人均纯收入低于全国人均纯收入水平的60%。此次流调结果与2000年流调结果相比,15岁及以上人群以及不同年龄、性别的涂阳肺结核患病率均呈下降趋势。但是乡村患病率高于城镇,西部地区患病率明显高于中部和东部。调查结果提示结核病疫情虽有所下降,但是结核病特别是耐药结核病负担仍很严重。

关键词: 结核, 肺/流行病学, 患病率, 抽样研究, 问卷调查

Abstract: This survey aims to understand the prevalence status and trend of tuberculosis (TB) in China, and evaluate the implementation of National TB Control Programme (2001—2010). Multi-stage stratified cluster proportional random sampling method was used to select the survey population. People over 15 years old in sampled survey points were administered chest X-ray, those with suspected pulmonary TB symptoms or with suspected pulmonary TB lesion shown by X-ray were performed sputum smear and culture examination. All the bacterial strain obtained were performed drug susceptibility testing of anti-TB drugs. All active TB patients detected by this survey received the socio-economic and TB knowledge awareness questionnaire. This survey has following findings. First, the prevalence of active and smear positive was 459/100 000 and 66/100 000 respectively among population over 15 years old in 2010. Secondly, the prevalence in male was higher than in female, and gradually increase by age, peaked in 75-79 years old. Thirdly, the active and smear positive prevalence of pulmonary TB were 291/100 000 and 44/100 000 in eastern part of China, 463/100 000 and 60/100 000 in the middle part, 695/100 000 and 105/100 000 in western part, 569/100 000 and 78/100 000 in rural area, 307/100 000 and 49/100 000 in cities respectively. Fourth, the multi-drug resistance TB rate was 6.8% (19/280). Fifth, the general pulblic TB knowledge awareness rate was 57.0% (720 912/1 264 905). The sixth, the annual per capital net income of TB patient household was 3292 yuan, of those 66.8% of patients lower than 60% of nationwide per capita income. In compariton with the survey in 2000, the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary TB showed a downward trend among people over 15 years old, as well as in different age group and gender. However, the prevalence in rural area was higher than in cities, and western part also significantly higher than the middle and eastern parts. These findings indicated that although the TB prevalence has dropped, the TB burden especially for the multi-drug resistant TB is still very serious.

Key words: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology, Prevalence, Sampling studies, Questionnaires